The paper explores the political and ideological evolution of the mainstream left thought collective in the West. Heavily influenced by the classical Marxian paradigm prior to the 1950s, this collective gradually shifted to the matters of culture and identity between the 1950s and the 1980s. In the left ideological paradigm, this transformation became known as the “cultural turn”; some early left authors also referred to this shift as “Cultural Marxism.” Later, the latter became a favorite word of choice for scholars and writers on the right. Social scholarship on both sides of the political spectrum have frequently stressed the important role of the so-called Frankfurt School in pioneering the abovementioned transformation. This paper argues that, as far as the mainstreaming of the cultural turn, there were more important intellectual sources than that school. Among others, these sources included racialized Marxism of C.L.R James, William Dubois, and Frantz Fanon (1940s-1960s), W. Right Mills, and British Cultural Studies, which gradually phased out economic determinism and the class-based approach of classical Marxism by shifting attention to culture, identity, the Third World, race, and gender.
Categories: Left and Right