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  1. Duverger’s Law. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duverger%27s_law Froim that:

    “In political science, Duverger’s law holds that single-ballot plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system.

    [T]he simple-majority single-ballot system favours the two-party system.[1]

    — Maurice Duverger
    The discovery of this tendency is attributed to Maurice Duverger, a French sociologist who observed the effect and recorded it in several papers published in the 1950s and 1960s. In the course of further research, other political scientists began calling the effect a “law” or principle.

    As a corollary to the law, Duverger also asserted that proportional representation favors multi-partism, as does the plurality system with runoff elections.

    [B]oth the simple-majority system with second ballot and proportional representation favour multi-partism.[2]

    — Maurice Duverger
    Duverger’s law draws from a model of causality from the electoral system to a party system. A proportional representation (PR) system creates electoral conditions that foster the development of many parties, whereas a plurality system marginalizes smaller political parties, generally resulting in a two-party system.

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