While I think Dr. Roth’s presentation of the findings of the available data from the social science research and historical evidence is accurate, I disagree that the findings of “IQ realists” are grounds for racial determinism. Thomas Sowell explains why. IQ is more elastic than what determinists would recognize. Also, IQ is interrelated with climate and broader environmental conditions. For instance, there is a strong correlation between low IQ and malnutrition. See here. This latter factor would go along way to explain why those areas of the world with the lowest average IQ levels also exhibit the highest levels of malnutrition. We also have to consider the large variation in IQ within racial and ethnic groups. Additionally, a high IQ by itself does not guarantee social success. I have known individuals, for instance, with very high IQs in the 160 to 190 range who were total fuck ups, e.g., flunked out of college, drug addicts, mentally ill, chronically unemployed, unable to care for children, etc. In some ways, people with lower IQs often tend to be more socially and personally stable and less given to extremes of behavior or emotion. Think of all the boring everday folks with normal IQs who aren’t particularly interesting or inspiring people but who can keep jobs, raise their kids, drive safely, pay bills on time, etc.
Dr. Byron Roth, Professor Emeritus of psychology at Dowling College on Long Island, has written an important book on the damage that has been done to the United States and Europe by the large scale immigration of non-European peoples that has taken place in recent decades.
Roth begins The Perils of Diversity by documenting how elite opinion-makers in academia and the mainstream media almost all assume that the peoples of all races are similar, and therefore that they can all be accommodated in the United States and Europe. The principal “debate” is between those who advocate assimilation and those who advocate multiculturalism. While acknowledging that different racial groups can sometimes be in conflict, assimilationists argue that these ethnic problems can be solved through “the magic of assimilation,” in which all races and religions are gradually transformed into Americans or Europeans. The multiculturalists argue that we should let the immigrants keep their culture, beliefs, and practices; this can be accomplished, they say, peacefully, and different communities can live in social harmony. They blame the intolerant attitudes of the host populations in the United States and Europe for the discord that is frequently present: It is the fault of the indigenous American and European peoples, who do not do enough to accommodate immigrants.
Roth argues that both the assimilationists and the multiculturalists fail to understand human nature.
Assimilationists believe that all races have the intelligence and values required to maintain Western civilization, while multiculturalists believe that all races and cultures can live together in social harmony. These beliefs are, Roth argues, seriously incorrect in the light of historical experience and scientific evidence.
To sustain these beliefs, the academy, the legal profession, and philanthropic foundations ignore and suppress the scientific evidence that has shown that genes have a major impact on both individual and racial differences. But academics who state that there are genetic racial differences come in for tremendous criticism and punishment—they are deemed “racists” are run out of the academy. Dr Roth describes the fate of Chris Brand, who was fired from the University of Edinburgh, as well the attacks on Bruce Lahn of the University of Chicago, and on James Watson, who was forced to resign from the research institute at Cold Springs Harbour. All of these scientists were punished for suggesting that there are race differences in IQ.
Discussion of these issues is further suppressed in a number of countries by “hate speech” laws that prohibit public debate on race and intelligence. It is effectively illegal to publish a book criticizing immigration on these grounds in Canada, and publishers are highly reluctant to do so in Europe.
Philanthropic foundations sponsor publications and conferences on race, but do not invite anyone who might make the case for genetic racial differences. They also give huge sums for studies of “racism” to pro-immigration groups, including The National Council of La Raza, as well as Hispanic lobbies that have advocated the return of the southern states to Mexico.
Roth notes the vested interests of many of those that favor mass immigration. Business leaders often like open borders because immigrants provide cheap labor. Liberals and leftists favor mass immigration because they care little about the preservation of Western civilization and have adopted a form of racialized Marxism, in which Whites have effectively taken the place of Marx’s bourgeoisie and non-Whites, the proletariat. They regard the Europeans as the oppressors and non-Europeans as the oppressed.
In making his case, Dr. Roth outlines human evolutionary history—that is, “Big History” of the past tens of thousands of years. Early man lived in bands of some 50 to 100 close relatives. These bands were, in many ways, altruistic, and each member participated in reciprocal co-operation (what is often called “inclusive fitness.”) On the other hand, each band typically had relations with outside bands in varying degrees of hostility. This in-group/out-group dual code, as the British sociologist Herbert Spencer described it in the 19th century, has evolved as human nature. The remaining hunter-gatherers that survive in the Amazon basin and elsewhere typically make frequent attacks on neighboring bands; the victors pass on their genes for hostility to out-groups.
In multiracial societies, the integration of ethnic groups is hard enough when the groups have the same abilities; the strains on social harmony are much greater when the abilities of the groups differ widely. Dr Roth has three chapters explaining racial differences in ability and the effect that climate has had on selecting for intelligence. He summarizes the numerous studies that have shown the existence of race differences in intelligence. The essential facts are that with the average European IQ set at 100, the North East Asians have an average IQ of approximately 105, Hispanics have an average IQ of approximately 89, South Asians and North Africans, an average IQ of approximately 84, and sub-Saharan Africans, an average IQ of approximately 70. These racial differences present difficulties for multiracial societies.
Furthermore, because (apart from small numbers of Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans) the immigrants into the United States and Europe have lower average IQs than the European peoples, the IQs of the populations will decline. As their numbers increase by further immigration and higher fertility, the average IQ in the United States and Europe will fall further and this will seriously impair the economic and intellectual world leadership of the European peoples.
Additional problems are that all multiracial societies are stratified by ability such that the more intelligent races achieve more power and wealth. The groups with lower IQs resent this and lobby for legislation and “affirmative action” to redress the perceived inequity. In Indonesia, for example, the ethnic Chinese have an average IQ of approximately 105, while Indonesians average around 87. The Chinese are approximately 3 percent of the population but control about 70 percent of the private economy. This generated resentment among the Indonesians, who in 1998, killed about 2,000 Chinese and looted and burned their homes and businesses.
Roth gives an account of how it has come about that non-European immigrants have flooded into the United States and Europe in the last few decades. The first American immigrants came mainly from Northwest Europe. Between 1881 and the early 1920s, larger numbers came from Southern and Eastern Europe, particularly Italians, Poles and Jews. In 1924, an immigration act was passed that imposed quotas restricting the numbers from Southern and Eastern Europe, in order to preserve that the Northwest European ethnic identity and culture. There were no restrictions on immigration from Latin America, but at this time few Latin Americans arrived.
By the 1960s, the American elites viewed immigration restriction as what Roth describes as “morally compromised” and “inconsistent with American ideals.” The Immigration Act of 1965 was passed that abolished national preferences favoring Northwest Europeans. The act set a total limit of 290,000 admissions per year, but also admitted immigrants’extended families outside the quota. It was this act that opened the floodgates of non-European immigrants, who, together with Blacks, are projected to become a majority of the population by around the year 2042. From 1965 onwards, numerous illegal immigrants entered the United States. In 1986, amnesty was granted to 3.1 million illegal aliens who had arrived in the country before 1982. By this time, about 600,000 people were entering the United States legally every year, so in 1990 Congress raised the quota to 700,000.
The flow continued to increase, reaching approximately one million a year in the 1990s. Only about 16 percent of the immigrants were now coming from Europe or Canada.
Roth documents similar mass immigration of non-Europeans into Western Europe after the Second World War. The two main reasons for this were the shortage of manual labor and immigration from former European colonies.
Germany brought in large numbers of mainly Turkish “guest workers” to help rebuild the country in the 1950s. Many of these workers brought in their families, and there are now over three million Muslims in Germany (most of them being Turks.) These newcomers do not do well by any social measure, and a government survey in 2004 found that they are becoming increasingly alienated from German society. Mosque attendance is rising, and a survey [PDF] has shown that a bout 40 percent consider “the use of physical violence as a reaction to the threat presented to Islam by the West is legitimate.”
Nearly two-thirds of those aged 14 to 18 report having few or no German friends. Immigrants from former colonies have come in large numbers to Britain, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain and Portugal. In France, Muslims from Africa are estimated at 5.7 percent of the population.
Muslims have high rates of crime throughout Western Europe. In Britain they are overrepresented in jails by a factor of 3.67; in France by four to five, and in Germany by six to seven. In Denmark, where they constitute only 4 percent of the population, Muslims have been convicted for more than half the rapes, and these are almost always of non-Muslim women.
In the last chapter Roth discusses the likely future of the West and the world. He estimates that the average American IQ will decline from 98 to 95 by mid-century. This may seem a small drop, but it will have dire effects for elites, because the percentage of Americans with an IQ of at least 120 will fall from 7.1 to 4.8. In the United States and Western Europe, there will likely emerge a rich White-and-Asian elite and a Black-and-Brown majority. This demographic transformation will profoundly impair their economic and military strength and their intellectual world leadership.
China will likely emerge as the new world superpower. Over the next 40 years, the number of well-trained Chinese with IQs over 120 will outnumber their American counterparts by about eight to one. Roth writes, “The upshot is that the gap in the potential for innovation and economic growth between China and the U.S. will grow enormously and begin to have its effects in the very near future.”
Roth also predicts an American fiscal disaster that will produce high inflation and an inability to fund social programs. This will lead to a political conflict between the productive, mostly White part of the population threatened by inflation, and the less productive, mostly non-White part threatened by the loss of welfare handouts.
Roth is even more pessimistic about Europe. He regards the European Union leaders as left-wing authoritarians who aim to turn the European Union into a centrally controlled unified state. The higher fertility rates of Muslims will likely produce Islamic majorities throughout Western Europe by the end of the present century.
Byron Roth has done a terrific job setting out his gloomy but indisputable analysis of the future of the European peoples in his closely argued book. When we reach the end of book, we can only reflect that we are living in a unique moment in human history, in which the European peoples are complacent about the destruction of their genetic and cultural heritage brought about by the invasion of alien peoples.
One is reminded of the Chinese curse—“May you live in interesting times.”